Earwigs: Insects known to feed on African Violets. Earwigs measure 1/4 to 3/4 inch in length and are brown in color. They are most easily recognized by the pair of large, curved pincers which extend from the tail. While considered scavengers, Earwigs sometimes feed on the leaves and flowers of African Violets. More information.
Earworms: See Fruitworms.
EC (1): Electrical Conductivity.
EC (2): Emulsifiable Concentrate.
Edged: Bloom pattern. Describes an African Violet flower with an edge that differs in color from the rest of the flower. Also see Geneva.
Edith: Rhapsodie variety. Medium, standard African Violet (4-inch pot size). Flowers are pink stars with a darker pink center. Leaves are dark green. Introduced 1993. Improved 1996. More information.
Electrical Conductivity: (EC) Measure of salt content in water or fertilizer solution.
Element: Substance which cannot be chemically reduced to more simple substances. There are 92 known elements, with hydrogen as the simplest. In horticulture, there are 16 essential elements. Eight of these are major elements, while the other eight are considered micronutrients. In addition, there are other elements which, though not considered essential, may have some beneficial effect on African Violets and other plants. These are called trace elements.
Elemental Fungicide: See Elemental Pesticide.
Elemental Mobility: Relative measure of how efficiently elements move through plant tissue. Mobility of elements is classified from very mobile to very immobile. The mobility of specific elements will affect which portions of an African Violet show symptoms of a deficiency for that element. Thus, a deficiency of a very mobile element will, first, exhibit symptoms in older growth, while a deficiency of very immobile elements will, first, exhibit symptoms in the newer growth.
Elemental Pesticide: Any pesticide in which the active ingredient is a natural element, i.e., sulfur which is used to treat various fungi. Contrast with Organic and Synthetic Pesticides.
Elemental Toxicity: Refers to the toxicity resulting from excessive concentrates of a specific element in African Violets and other plants. Also see Toxicity Effect.
Elfi: Holtkamp variety (Europe). Small, standard African Violet (4-inch pot size) with single, pink flowers and dark green, girl-type leaves. Available in the U.S. as Boston.
Elfriede: Rhapsodie variety. The first African Violet with non-dropping flowers. Standard African Violet (4-inch pot size) with dark blue flowers. Introduced 1965.
Ellen: Rhapsodie variety. Medium, standard African Violet (4-inch pot size) with frilled, two-tone pink flowers and medium green leaves (red reverse). Introduced 1987. Improved 1994. (AVSA Reg. No. 6611 and 8343) More information.
Elma: Holtkamp variety (Europe). Small, standard African Violet (4-inch pot size). Flowers are blue stars with a white edge. Leaves are dark green.
Emerald: Optimara super miniature variety. See Little Emerald.
Emi: Holtkamp variety (Europe). Small, standard African Violet (4-inch pot size) with single, bi-color flowers. Flowers are blue with a white edge. Leaves are dark green (red reverse). Available in the U.S. as Molokai.
Emilie: Rhapsodie variety. Large, standard African Violet (4-inch pot size). Flowers are blue stars. Leaves are dark green (red reverse). Introduced 1991. (AVSA Reg. No. 7498) More information.
Emulsifiable Concentrate: (EC) Concentrated pesticide formulation which must be diluted before applying.
Endocarp: Inner wall of a pericarp.
Epicarp: Also called exocarp. Outer wall of a pericarp.
Epidermis: The "skin" of African Violets and other plants formed by the outermost cells of the leaves and stems. The upper epidermis forms the top surface of a leaf. The lower epidermis forms the under surface of a leaf. Also see Cuticle.
Epinasty: A distortion of a leaf blade such that its edges curl.
Erika: Rhapsodie variety. Medium, standard African Violet (4-inch pot size) with semi-double, two-tone pink flowers and dark green leaves (red reverse). Introduced 1993. Improved 1995. (AVSA Reg. No. 8344) More information.
Essential Element: Any element which is essential to the normal growth and reproduction of a plant. There are 16 essential elements: boron (B), calcium (Ca), carbon (C), chlorine (Cl), copper (Cu), hydrogen (H), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sulfur (S) and zinc (Zn). Also see Major Element, Micronutrient and Trace Element.
Essentiality: Determination of whether an element is essential to the normal growth and reproduction of plants. Essentiality is determined by three criteria: 1) absence of a specific element will result in abnormal growth, incomplete life cycle or premature death; 2) the element cannot be replaceable by another; and 3) the element must have direct effect on the growth and metabolism of plants. Also see Essential Element.
Etoliation: Condition which describes an African Violet that is receiving very little or no light at all. Symptoms of etoliation include chlorosis and the elongation of leaves and stems.
Evelyn: Rhapsodie variety. Large, standard African Violet (4-inch pot size) with single, blue flowers and dark green leaves. Introduced 1983. (AVSA Reg. No. 6612) More information.
Everglades: Optimara variety. Large, standard African Violet (4-inch pot size) with semi-double, blue flowers and medium green leaves. Introduced 1990. (AVSA Reg. No. 7347) More information.
Exocarp: See Epicarp.
Extra Large: Description of standard plant size. Extra large, standard African Violets are over 16 inches in diameter and are typically grown in 6-inch pots. Also see World Traveler.
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